The versatility of Lawrence Brown, Ellington’s lead trombonist

Lawrence_Brown_1943The self-deprecating Lawrence Brown is best known as one the great players in Duke Ellington’s trombone section. In fact, when Brown joined, the Ellington band became the first jazz band to have three trombones. He is, of course, more than just a number.

He became the band’s lead trombonist and a very versatile soloist. How versatile? In addition to his incredible displays of virtuosity, he is probably the first of the great jazz ballad trombonists.

But I described him as self-deprecating. He frequently spoke poorly of his own ability. It must have been an attempt to appear humble. If he believed his comments, it’s hard to see how anyone with so little self-confidence could succeed in anything! Continue reading

Before Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony Became a Cliche

Beethoven. popular music,classical music Vienna
Beethoven in 1804 when he composed the Fifth Symphony

Beethoven in 1804, the year he composed his Fifth Symphony / Detail of a portrait by W. J. Mähler

Not too long ago, when an orchestra announced it would play a piece of new music, they had to program it carefully. They performed between two very well-known and popular pieces and right before intermission.

The audience was stuck if it wanted to hear both favorites. New music was like medicine. It’s good for you, but no one expects you to like it. All of the favorites were once new. They never would have survived if audiences of their day behaved like modern audiences.

What is classical music, anyway?

Narrowly speaking “classical” music refers to the generation of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, although only Beethoven was still living by the time anyone started to call it classical in order to distinguish it from popular music.

Basically the audience for popular music valued novelty and virtuosity above all else. They expected to be able to grasp it at first hearing and had no patience with music they had to study and hear over and over. That was for classical audiences, who wanted music that revealed something new and delightful on repeated listening. Continue reading

Medieval Night Watchmen and the Modern Wind Band

Duke of Anjou entrance to Paris -- idea of classical music
medieval wall and towers

Duke Louis II of Anjou’s entrance to Paris / Froissart chronicles, 14th century

What do a night watchman and a professional musician have in common? The first professional wind musicians were night watchmen.

Many modern wind instruments can find their ancestors being played from towers to keep the city safe at night and entertain citizens by day.

Protective walls surrounded every European town of any significance until the 18th century. Many cities had hundreds of towers. Continue reading

Hello Dolly! Celebrating 50 Years

Hello Dolly!
Hello Dolly!

Trailer screen shot from the movie (1969) with Barbra Streisand

Hello Dolly! opened January 16, 1964 and closed after 2844 performances on December 27, 1970. No previous Broadway musical had such a long run. Carol Channing as Dolly Gallagher Levi led the cast. It also ran for 794 performances at London’s West End.

The Broadway show won 10 Tony Awards, including Best Musical, and for Channing, Best Actress in a Musical. Not till 35 years later did another musical surpass Hello Dolly! Continue reading

The most song-inspiring Northern general: McClellan?

Parade march (McClellan)Of all the songs published during the American Civil War, many are dedicated to individuals. They are mostly about generals, although Union publishers issued two tributes to captains.

It’s no surprise that the greatest number of these songs concern the best-known leaders. But who would have thought there would be more about Gen. George B. McClellan than any other general? Continue reading

Symphony no. 7 by Sergey Prokofiev

prokofiev portrait

I never gave much thought to Prokofiev symphonies until my orchestra needed to hire a new conductor. We interviewed six semi-finalists and listened to them explain a sample program. Five of the six built their proposed program around Prokofiev’s Seventh Symphony! We’re working on performing it now.

Prokofiev as symphonist

prokofiev portrait

Prokofiev in New York, 1918

When Sergey Prokofiev first performed some of his piano music in public (in 1908) critics found it unintelligible. In response, he carefully maintained his reputation as an ultramodern radical.  Continue reading

A prehistory of the trombone

Medieval wind band with early trombonist / slide trumpeter
early trombone / slide trumpet

Musicians and dancers from Borso’s Bible.

The familiar shape of the slide trombone has been around at least since 1490. That’s when Filippino Lippi included an image of it in frescos he painted at Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome.

It hasn’t been around as long as the word “trombone,” which first appeared in 1439 in court records in Ferrara. The court at Ferrara had a three-piece wind band for most of the century. Pietro Agostino played played trombone in that band from at least 1456 to at least 1503. Continue reading

Street music from antiquity to now


BuskersIn many places in many cities all over the world, pedestrians are treated to live music.

Pop singers, jazz musicians, gospel singers, even classical musicians perform for whomever passes by, most often with instrument cases or some other container open in order to solicit donations.

Collectively, these entertainers are known as buskers. They represent an ancient tradition. I say all over the world, and I’m sure that’s no exaggeration, but this post concerns only street entertainments that can be traced back to the Roman Empire. Continue reading

Music in Letters Home from Civil War Soldiers

civil war soldier

civil war soldierIn this series of posts on Civil War music I have occasionally cited Battle Hymns: The Power and Popularity of Music. Author Christian McWhirter commented twice about letters.

On the very first page he noted, ” Almost any war diary, letter collection, or memoir contains at least a passing reference to music.”

Later, in the chapter on soldiers, he wrote, “Music became intrinsically linked to the soldiers’ Civil War experiences—even combat performance—and is mentioned in almost every wartime diary, letter collection, or reminiscence.”

My sister-in-law, the family genealogist, presented us with a 100-page treatise at Christmas that fleshed out not only direct ancestors on my father’s side of the family, but their siblings and in-laws. She transcribed four extant letters from a Civil War soldier. When I noticed Civil War era letters, I expected to find reference to music. Here is is: Continue reading

I like that symphony. Who wrote it?


musicIf you attend a lot of live classical music concerts (especially orchestra concerts), chances are you hear music by the same composers over and over.

If you listen to classical music radio, you hear music by unfamiliar composers, but chances are it’s very nice music. Have you ever wondered who these composers are and why they’re not well known?

Anton Bruckner

Wait, you may say. Bruckner is hardly an unknown composer. He was one of the great symphonists of the late 19th century. Oh, and he also wrote some lovely choral music. But did it occur to you that probably no one would know about the choral music if he hadn’t become famous as a symphonist? Continue reading