As young men fought and died on Civil War battlefields, most of the population of both the Union and the Confederacy remained on farms or in towns and cities.
Life went on, and in some cities, life included attendance at concerts, the opera, or other musical theater. But life went on in wartime conditions, though not as normal.
How did the war affect the institutions that provided this entertainment? This post looks at some of the ones in Boston, New York, and Chicago as representative of Northern cities.
In his history of the Handel and Haydn Society, John S. Dwight mentioned the opening of the Civil War and noted that the 17th Massachusetts Regiment met with violence on its way through Baltimore.
And music, too, appalled, — music as Art, — must needs be silent. What is there now for oratorio, or symphony, or opera to do? Only the drum and fife, the bugle and the trumpet, the cannons and alarm-bells now can claim attention.
The Handel and Haydn Society found that serious music lovers had more serious matters on their mind than music. “The lighter and more superficial, even frivolous forms of melody, which answer the momentary ends of mere amusement, will naturally be most in vogue at such a time; the opera, perhaps, will have some chance.”
The Society soon announced a joint performance of “miscellaneous patriotic and national music” with the Philharmonic Orchestra, the Germania Band, and four soloists for the purpose of raising money for the war effort. They also sang some choruses by Handel. The concert took place on April 27, pleased the audience, and raised $378.50.
The annual business meeting took place a month later. The treasurer reported that the organizations finances were in about the same condition as the previous year. It had a debt of more than $1300, secured by railroad bonds. He said that, in wartime conditions, “no society could rely on public patronage for support.”
He proposed amending the bylaws to charge society members a $5 annual membership fee. The alternative would have to be having the society’s president conduct rehearsals instead of the hired conductor. Nonetheless, the proposal failed.
The conductor and organist agreed to serve without fixed salary and split whatever money was left over after expenses were met. That amounted to only a little more than $40 apiece the following July 1 at the end of the concert season.
The society did not attempt a public concert the next season until its annual Messiah performance, which took place on December 29. The military draft took its toll on the orchestra, although Dwight noted that it was larger than could have been expected. He complained only that the one bassoonist available was not very good. A repeat performance took place on New Year’s afternoon. The receipts were just over half of those of the first performance.
Rehearsals of Mendelssohn’s Lobegesang and Handel’s Dettingen Te Deum began in February 1862, the latter its first complete performance in Boston. Both works end in victory, something the Army of the Potomoc began to experience only at the end of that month.
It was too late to schedule a performance to coincide with Washington’s birthday, but the society was able to book the Music Hall on March 1. The concert included a grand entrance of Massachusetts officers who had recently been released from captivity as prisoners of war, along with the governor and his staff.
No financial statement exists for that concert, but the year’s only other performance, Creation, failed to meet expenses.
Dwights account continues its recitation of ambitious programs given on an irregular schedule, complaints of members skipping rehearsals, and finances. The treasure reported a profit for the first time in May 1865. Dwight’s only references to the war up until that meeting conceal more about the society than they reveal.
President Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863). Dwight wrote,
. . . and liberty-loving, loyal citizens of Boston, on the afternoon of that day, had taken worthy recognition of the great event by a memorable concert in the Music Hall – a “Grand Jubilee Concert” – a concert as remarkable for the artistic composition of its program, musically considered, as for the occasion that inspired it.
After mentioning some of the noteworthy performers and the fact that Ralph Waldo Emerson had written a poem especially for the occasion, Dwight adds cryptically,
Although the Handel and Haydn Society, owing to political division (or at least lack of unanimity) within its ranks, could not lend its aid officially, by name, yet it will be worth remembering with some satisfaction that, without a Handel and Haydn Society, the important choral features of that concert would have been impractical.
What Dwight did not say is that Lincoln had issued a preliminary proclamation the previous September 22 in the form of an ultimatum to the Confederacy: they could lay down their arms and end the rebellion, or he would declare freedom for all the slaves on January 1, 1863.
The preliminary proclamation gave Boston plenty of advance notice for a celebration.Not all who favored the Union cause, however, favored emancipation of all the slaves.
The proclamation outraged many people, mostly in places closer to where slavery actually existed. But apparently enough people in Boston objected that some members of the Handel and Haydn Society refused to participate in the jubilee concert.
There was no music at all that summer. Not even the Union victory at Gettysburg in July 1863 prompted a celebratory concert. Nothing of relevance to this article occurred until the end of the war in April 1865. The Society had planned a festival in April or May to celebrate the end of its 50th year.
Preparations were underway with the war ended. It seemed like the Festival would coincide with the general national rejoicing until Lincoln was gunned down a week later. Dwight reported,
We were just on the point of assembling in the Music Hall to find voice for our joy and gratitude in the great anthems of victory, and hear the Handel and Haydn chorus, with new inspiration, sing the Hymn of Praise and Handel Hallelujahs, when suddenly came flashed over the land the appalling news: Lincoln is dead! This second Father of his Country has fallen by the hand of the assassin.
As a result no scheduled concerts took place and all the theaters closed. After just over a month of mourning, though, Boston held a nine-concert festival that began on May 23 and lasted five days. Besides Boston’s own orchestra, leading members of the New York and Philadelphia orchestras combined to make an ensemble of 100 instrumentalists to accompany a 600-voice chorus.
A new organ that had been built in 1863 lent its power to the occasion. Organizers even tried to hire the best solo voices from England, but in the end had to settle for the best American singers. Musical selections included not only old favorites of the oratorio and symphonic literature, but new music by Wagner and Liszt.
No one has written a history of the New York Philharmonic that matches either the detail or the emotion of Dwight’s history of the Handel and Haydn Society.
The war affected the Philharmonic only indirectly. It had suffered financial difficulties before the war started, so its directors decided to move concerts from the Academy of Music to the smaller Irving Hall around the corner for two seasons.
It turned out to be a mistake. Attendance at the concerts filled Irving Hall, with the consequence that not all members could get seats.
Filling the smaller hall past its capacity caused a drop in receipts. In the fall of 1863 the orchestra moved back to the Academy of Music, where it opened to a large and appreciative audience.
The orchestra’s income actually rose during the war years. Subscriptions declined sharply, but tickets sold to the general public for single concerts rose significantly. The changing audience demanded a new approach to programming. The orchestra began to hire more soloists and more frequently augmented the orchestra with extra personnel to play music that required a larger orchestra.
Diarist George Templeton Strong noted thoughts on the music in an important diary. Vera Brodsky Lawrence has edited the musical comments in his diaries and added valuable historical context. Unfortunately, she only completed volumes through 1862 before her death.
New York had a permanent orchestra, the only one in the country at the time, but it did not have a permanent or stable opera company. Instead, it had rival impresarios mounting seasons irregularly.
Emanuele Muzio founded a group called Associated Artists and leased the New York Academy of Music in January 1861. The group traveled to Boston for a successful engagement and returned to the Academy on April 8 to present a few performances on the way to engagements in Philadelphia.
The specter of war so distracted the population that the company could not meet expenses from ticket sales. When Lincoln proclaimed war on April 15, Muzio immediately canceled all remaining performances that season.
Most of the opera singers were foreign-born, and many immediately left the country. Many local musicians had left town to participate in the war effort, leaving a dozen churches without organists. Enough singers remained from Associated Artists that they could perform a concert with the opera orchestra conducted by Theodore Thomas on June 22.
Lawrence observes that besides quicksteps and patriotic songs, there was not much music to be heard in New York. Bernard Ullman rented the New York Music Academy and Brooklyn Music Academy in September 1861 as if he intended to attempt to mount another season of opera.
Instead, he brought a magician named Carl Herrmann, who had completed a series of very successful performances in Havana. Ullman proclaimed in print that he had engaged Herrmann because of his unique artistry, not simply to make a profit. Herrmann repeated his success in New York.
Theodore Thomas and the opera orchestra performed favorite operatic overtures and other pieces, including the “Herrmann Polka,” composed by Strauss of Vienna (probably Johann Strauss, Jr.) in tribute to him.
In the run-up to the war, the Germanic Arion Society presented patriotic tableaux at its annual ball on February 21, 1861. Two days later Harrison Millard presented a “Concert of National Songs and Anthems of All Nations,” with half a dozen singers, a men’s chorus and orchestra conducted by George F. Bristow, and the Dodworth Military and Cornet Bands.
Bristow organized a patriotic Music Festival to aid the Volunteer Defense Fund on May 25. A vast roster of eminent soloists performed 22 different pieces.
The June 1, 1861 issue of the Albion observed that every concert had to include at least one national song, and that concerts advertised without the word “patriotic” were poorly attended. I do notice that there were enough singers left from Associated Artists to put on a concert with Thomas and the opera orchestra on June 22.
The Dodworth Band’s summer concerts in Central Park, beginning August 3, 1861, provided welcome relief from the dismal news about Union losses. The Tribune reported that the audience at the third concert was not less than 25,000 people, and with so many men at war, consisted largely of women.
Planners provided a tent to protect the audience from the sun, but it was not nearly large enough. Unfortunately, the band also played its first three concerts from a tent, which greatly deadened the sound.
The concerts lasted regularly throughout August and September. Concert life continued to suffer from the war, and bad news from the front kept audiences away. Alcohol-serving concert saloons attracted the greatest crowds.
Because Lawrence is my chief source and completed work on Strong’s diary only through 1862, I have little information on concert life for the rest of the war. It stands to reason that the daily news continued to influence the public’s appetite for music, but New York’s remaining musicians would have to continue performing in order to make a living.
Soprano Clara Louise Kellogg, the first American-born operatic singer to perform successfully in Europe, made her New York debut with Muzio’s company on February 26, 1861. After Muzio left and Ullman declined to attempt an operatic season, Max Maretzek tried his hand. He had both succeeded and failed in previous attempt to present opera in New York.
Kellogg wrote in her memoir that Maretzek ,
so obstinate that he simply did not know how to give up a project merely because it was impossible, packed a few of us off to Philadelphia to produce the Ballo in Maschera. We hoped against hope that it would be light enough to divert the public, at even that tragic moment. But the public refused to be diverted . . . We could plainly see that opera was doomed for the time being in America.
Characteristically, Maretzek saw no such thing. Instead, he decided to try La figlia del regimento (The Daughter of the Regiment), a light-hearted military opera. Kellogg, playing the Daughter, learned to play drums, and the production incorporated as warlike an atmosphere as possible.
“For example,” Kellogg wrote, “we were barbarous enough to put in sundry American national airs, and we had the assistance of real Zouaves to lend colour.”
Success with the opera in New York led to successful performances in Baltimore and Washington. Unfortuately, I haven’t identified the year these performances took place, but the company survived the war, and Kellogg continued to sing for Maretzek until 1867, when she made her English debut.
The first concert of any kind in Chicago occurred in 1836. During the Civil War it was not yet a major cultural center, and therefore serves as a representative of smaller cities.
Only one book, mainly a compilation of biographical sketches by Florence Ffrench, describes the city’s music that early.
Chicago’s first concert of any kind took place in 1836.
Its Philharmonic Society debuted in 1850 with Julius Dyhrenfurth conducting. It apparently fell on hard times until Hans Balatka took over in 1860.
Chicago’s first operatic performance likewise took place in 1850. Opera became a regular feature of musical life in 1858.
The Philharmonic Society’s sixth concert of its first season under Balatka took place on April 13, 1861, the day after Confederate forces began the Civil War by bombarding Fort Sumter. He finished the program with a work not on the program. The audience greeted “The Star Spangled Banner” (which would not become the official national anthem until decades later) with such loud enthusiasm that the noise completely drowned out the music.
Mrs. Carrie Matteson, apparently a local singer, sang the song, flag in hand, the following month for the season’s final concert, “with a result but little less striking than on the preceding occasion.”
The orchestra continued to draw overflowing audiences throughout the war years, but Ffrench mentions no other concerts with any significance for the war.
Chicago’s economy must have suffered some during the years. Although she tried have to picture everything in the Chicago art scene in glowing terms, Ffrench observed that art and music life “held its own” and that patrons kept it at least to previous standards “at much personal and pecuniary sacrifice.”
One important pecuniary sacrifice had nothing to do with the War. Businessman Uranus H. Crosby built a new Academy of Music at his own expense for performance of Italian Opera. It was intended to open its first season in April 1865, but the assassination of President Lincoln caused postponement for an entire year.
Charles C. Perkins and John S. Dwight. History of the Handel and Haydn Society, of Boston, Massachusetts. Vol. I. From the Foundation of the Society through Its Seventy-Fifth Season: 1815-1890. with a new table of contents prepared by Judith Tick. New York: Da Capo Press, 1977. (Perkins died after completing the first three chapters. Therefore Dwight wrote about the Civil War years.)
Vera Brodsky Lawrence. Strong on Music: The New York Music Scene in the Days of George Templeton Strong. Volume III: Repercussions. 1857-1862. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Louise Kellogg, excerpts from Memoirs of an American Prima Donna (1913) in Music in the USA: a Documentary Companion, edited by Judith Tick. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Florence Ffrench, compiler. Music and Musicians in Chicago New York: Da Capo, 1979 – reprint of first edition, Chicago: Ffrench, 1899.
All images are public domain.